Working across borders
Range countries pledge to increase bilateral and regional cooperation for snow leopard conservation in transboundary landscapes. This is a core principle of snow leopard conservation given the extent to which snow leopard habitat abuts national borders and the importance of maintaining large landscapes.
Many transboundary initiatives among snow leopard countries are in various stages of implementation already. Moreover, compendia of good practices in transboundary cooperation, especially management of transboundary PAs, are available; some snow leopard countries have also been pursuing transboundary management and enforcement for tiger landscapes, which can be built upon.
The proposed GSC, Transboundary Cooperation, supports this objective by offering to assist countries to strengthen existing agreements and partnerships and to facilitate cross-boundary communication, knowledge exchanges, and scientific research and monitoring.
Portfolio in transboundary management and enforcement
|Afghanistan||Re-establish Oromchi Conference on Transboundary Protected Area. Exchange data on snow leopard and prey species. Establish standardized monitoring methods. Sign formal transboundary cooperation agreements.||Consultation with China, Pakistan, and Tajikistan to reinforce existing and new bilateral/multilateral instruments for snow leopard and prey conservation.|
|Bhutan||Operationalize transboundary conservation through inter-governmental conservation initiatives.||Explore possibilities of coordinated management of snow leopard habitat with China and India. Operationalize inter-governmental agreements available for control of illegal trade. Cooperate in research on gene flow, connectivity of snow leopard populations, and landscape-level movements.|
|China||Enhance international communication and cooperation with neighboring countries and international community.||Strengthen communication and experience-sharing with range countries through seminars and mutual visits. Develop cooperative projects and mechanism for transboundary conservation at landscape level and combatting illegal trade.|
|India||Develop coordinated management with neighboring countries that share snow leopard habitats by forging partnerships to support objectives and actions for snow leopard conservation.||Interact with range countries on snow leopard conservation to conduct compatible conservation actions in adjoining landscapes, joint management planning, and setting up cross-border linkage on enforcement and control of illegal trade.|
|Operationalize inter-governmental cooperation mechanisms available for control of illegal trade. Deal jointly with neighbors on enforcement and intelligence.||Consult with neighbors to reinforce existing bilateral/multilateral instruments for snow leopard conservation.|
|Kazakhstan||Broaden and deepen transboundary collaboration to improve protection and enforcement.|
|Kyrgyz Republic||Create transboundary nature reserve between Kyrgyz Republic, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and China. Create cooperative groups and improve nature reserves; in particular, increase staff levels to conserve the snow leopard and its prey successfully. Develop mechanism to work with local communities on species conservation.||Create cooperative groups to strengthen anti-poaching in the range of snow leopards. Realize intergovernmental agreement between the Governments of Kyrgyz Republic and Kazakhstan Republic on biodiversity conservation and creation of transboundary nature reserve. Integrate international monitoring system for assessing management effectiveness assessments of nature reserves.|
|Mongolia||Enhance snow leopard conservation in transboundary areas.||Develop a program for snow leopard conservation and monitoring in transboundary areas of Mongolia, Russia, China, and Kazakhstan. Get the program approved by responsible agencies and begin implementation.|
|Expand international transboundary PAs among Russia, Mongolia, and China for the protection of snow leopards.||Establish transboundary PAs in Siilhem National Park (Mongolia)-Salugem National Park-Chihachev Mountains (Russia).|
|Nepal||Improving transboundary conservation and collaboration with China and India.||Revisit and renew MoU with China and Resolution with India. Develop a framework for transboundary collaboration with China and India on the conservation of snow leopards and their prey. Develop bilateral cooperation agreement with China. Develop practical mechanism to share information related to poaching and trade of snow leopards and their body parts. Organize exposure visits between countries, to share lessons learned and experiences in PA management and community-based wildlife management.|
|Pakistan||Operationalize the inter-governmental cooperation mechanisms available for control of illegal trade. Work jointly with neighbors on enforcement and intelligence.||Explore possibilities for coordinated management of snow leopard habitat with neighboring countries. Operationalize inter-governmental agreements available for control of illegal trade (SAWEN, INTERPOL). Cooperate in research on gene flow, connectivity of snow leopard populations, and landscape-level movements.|
|Russia||Enhance cooperation with neighboring countries: Mongolia, Kazakhstan, and China.||Develop and approve a joint program of actions for snow leopard conservation in transboundary areas of Russia, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, and China. Start program implementation in 2015.|
|Develop new transboundary PAs in Russian, Mongolia, China, and Kazakhstan to protect habitats, prey, and snow leopards.||Conduct initial planning workshops with relevant countries. Develop and approve the cooperation agreements about transboundary PAs. Implement and monitor the transboundary management programs.|
|Extend the area of Altai-Golden Mountains UNESCO World Heritage Site to adjacent areas of China, Mongolia, and Kazakhstan.||Apply to UNESCO World Heritage Site Committee to establish international World Nature Heritage Site in transboundary area of Russia, Kazakhstan, China, and Mongolia.|
|Tajikistan||Improve transboundary conservation and practical collaboration with Afghanistan, China, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, and Kyrgyz Republic.||Develop a framework for transboundary collaboration with Afghanistan, China, and Pakistan for the conservation of snow leopards and their prey. Develop bilateral cooperation agreement with Kyrgyz Republic (in the context of the Pamir-Altai initiative). Organize exposure visits between countries to share lessons learned and experiences in PA management and community-based wildlife management.|
|Uzbekistan||Improvement of transboundary conservation and collaboration.|
|Global Support Component||Assist range countries with transboundary conservation.||Strengthening of existing agreements and partnerships, including enhanced collaboration through international institutions.Support to designation and management of landscape-level transboundary conservation areas and projects.Supporting study exchanges between PAs of both adjacent and regionally linked range states, their managers, and communities.
Support to coordinated habitat management (planning), joint research, and monitoring as well as facilitation of exchange of knowledge and data.